Peculiarities of media coverage of the consequences of the Chornobyl catastrophe.
But there for several decades, more precisely, “since the fifties there is a Code of Journalistic Practice. At the heart of this Code is not prohibited activities, and the principles of high responsibility of the journalist to society and readers.”
Analyzing the British experience S. Beglov came to the following conclusions:
Theoretically, freedom of the press has been established in Britain as a norm that is an integral part of all other human rights and freedoms. Legally, it is a freedom within the general law and certain restrictions on the press to prevent the abuse of this freedom to the detriment of society or individuals. In material terms, large enterprises of the newspaper industry and the monopolistic associations formed by them have the predominant opportunity to exercise this freedom.
During the seminar “Obstacles to Freedom of Speech in Ukraine and Ways to Overcome Them” held in Kyiv in 1996, it was noted that there are two freedoms of speech in general: 1) freedom of speech as an absolute value; 2) freedom of speech as a political argument, and during the parliamentary hearings on freedom of speech in 1997, the ex – speaker of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine O. Moroz singled out two aspects of freedom of speech: 1) freedom of speech as a legal category; 2) freedom of speech as a moral category.
In general, the problem of freedom of the press has at least eight aspects:
legal (legal); economic; historical; philosophical; political; moral; psychological; technical.
However, it is difficult to say unequivocally which of them is the most important. Therefore, their location in this list is quite conditional.
Types of computer editing and computer dictionary. Abstract
Degrees of computer editing automation. Stages of text processing; computer dictionary. The role of an electronic dictionary for editing texts. Reconstruction methods
Degrees of computer editing automation
Computer editing has features that set it apart from traditional editing. It distinguishes the following stages of automation:
Computer-edited (control and correction operations are performed by humans; the computer is used only as an “electronic pen”). An example of SR (editing systems that allow computerized editing) is TP (word processors). Automated editing (most of the control and correction operations are performed by SR, and man – a smaller part of control operations and most of the correction operations.part of the control and correction operations are performed by the SR, and less – by the person ; in addition, the person makes decisions in informal conflict situations).
Stages of text processing
Computer editing has its own time-specific stages of word processing:
pre-editing, ie preliminary manual marking of the original, which is performed by a person for the purpose of subsequent automated or automatic editing, for example, assignments for headings of special styles of their design, marking in the bibliographic description, etc.; inter-editing, which is performed by the SR itself, carrying out operations of control and correction of the text; post-editing performed by a person carrying out those operations of control and correction of the text, which could not be performed by the SR.
Computer editing is performed sequentially: from one unit to another. After processing at one level, move on to the next (in the direction from lower levels to higher).
“The specificity of comparative processing is that you can go to the higher level only when all the errors at the lower level have been eliminated (the presence of an error at lower levels makes it impossible to process higher ones). For comparison, during traditional editing a person processes the text integrally, ie. covers several adjacent levels simultaneously “.
The role of an electronic dictionary for editing texts. The computer dictionary for SR is most often created on the basis of the frequency dictionary of the necessary language. This is due to the fact that the words in the text are distributed according to frequency according to Zipf’s law.
This law is formulated as follows: if for a large enough text to make a list of all words used in it, calculate the frequency of its use for each word, place words in descending order of these frequencies, renumber these words from 1 (number “1” is assigned to the most frequent word) to R, the product of the ordinal number (rank, r) of any word write lab report online free in the list on its frequency in the text (1) will be almost constant (c):
f ∙ r = c
In practice, this means that when the first thousand words of the frequency dictionary cover about 75% of the words of any text, the first two thousand words only 80%, the first five thousand – only 85%, etc. That is, the coverage of the text words of the frequency dictionary are very uneven: a small number of words from the top of the frequency dictionary covers three quarters of the text, and most of the words from the bottom – the rest, only a quarter.
To ensure maximum coverage of the text, which significantly depends on the semantic content of the dictionary, it is often done as follows: in a computer dictionary there is a dictionary of common vocabulary (general dictionary) and vocabulary of individual fields of knowledge (industry dictionaries). Each industry dictionary, in addition to terms and denominations, also includes personalities (proper names and surnames of people), geographical names, abbreviations and acronyms. Next, to control the text of a particular industry using a common dictionary, as well as select the desired industry dictionary.
Computer dictionaries used for text editing classify:
by type of lexical units – dictionaries of word forms, in which words are presented in all their word-changing forms, and dictionaries of bases, in which the base of each word is indicated by all its possible endings; in the presence of blocks for the analysis of morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, endings), with which the bases can form new derivative words.
Dictionaries of word forms are more often used for analytical languages (like English), and dictionaries of bases are more often used for synthetic ones (like Ukrainian).
Each of these dictionaries has its disadvantages and advantages. Yes, a dictionary of word forms can be created very easily by processing a large enough array of texts on a computer and writing all the same words in the form of a dictionary on a computer medium. Unfortunately, such a dictionary will be several times larger than a similar dictionary of basics, which can only be created in a non-traditional way. Therefore, sometimes a combined type of dictionaries is used for syntactic languages, in which all other possible endings are also given for the most commonly used word forms.
Reconstruction methods. Correction operations are much more complex than control operations. They allow you to automatically correct only individual characters in words. Among these methods, the most famous are abbreviation, alphabetical, basic, combinatorial and digital. Consider them on the example of the alphabetical method.
For the alphabetical method, each entry in the reconstructive dictionary is formed of four fields:
to record the correct (normalized) word; to write the word length in characters; to write the alphabet from “a” to “I”; to positionally record the number of occurrences of letters in the correct word.
Here is an example of such a record:
field 1: structure field 2: 9 field 3: a b c d e f є g h and і y klm n o p q r s t u v w x y z field 4: 112122
In this dictionary, all entries are sorted by word length. Words less than three letters long are not included in the dictionary; they are reconstructed on the basis of a separate dictionary of frequently used words. As a hint, the editor is given words to correct the text (usually candidate up to 10), from which the editor must choose the right one. Such a word is automatically inserted into the text in place of the erroneous one by the editor’s command.
The efficiency of the alphabetical method of reconstruction under certain conditions can reach 0.8. The disadvantages of this and other methods of reconstruction are that they produce a relatively large number of candidate words for words of short length.
The method of fully automated reconstruction is that the errors in some frequently used words are the same in a large number of people, and therefore you can set them to automatically correct using a reconstructive dictionary of substitutions (for example, always replace the back from the floor, your own, etc.). With this dictionary, you can control and automatically replace surzhik and common recurring errors.
Peculiarities of media coverage of the consequences of the Chornobyl catastrophe. Abstract
The conceptual apparatus of a journalist. Aspects of coverage of the causes of the accident. Aspects of coverage of the consequences of the Chornobyl disaster. The main sources of information
The conceptual apparatus of a journalist
To write any journalistic material, you must first distinguish between the terms that you will use in your work. It is necessary to distinguish between certain concepts. Unfortunately, journalists often confuse things that are similar to each other, which leads to indignation on the part of experts on these issues.
Accident – (from the Italian avaria, from the Arabic Avar – damage, damage, damage to a ship or cargo) – is a dangerous event of man-made nature, which poses a threat to life and health of people on the site, territory or water area and leads to the destruction of buildings, structures, equipment and vehicles, violation of the production or transport process or causing damage to the environment (Article 1 of the Law of Ukraine of 14.12.1999 No. 1281-XIV “On emergency services “); damage, failure, destruction that occurred due to man-made (structural, production, technological, operational) or natural causes.
In modern production with high parameters of technological progress, conditions are periodically created that cause unexpected malfunctions or failure of machines, structures, communications, systems.
If an accident threatens human life or leads to human death, it is called a catastrophe. So a catastrophe is a large-scale accident or other event that leads to serious consequences, including pure death.
A transboundary accident is a global radiation accident in which the area of the accident extends beyond the state borders of the country in which it occurred .
One must also understand the meaning of the word “sarcophagus”.